Sunday, 20 May 2012

 Meghalaya Board of School Education (MBOSE) first started in 1974, but after 1996, when the University (NEHU) discontinued the Pre-University Course, it was taken over by the Board, since then all the financial matters, relating with SSLC and HSSLC branch were being dealt by the Board itself. Due to the increasing number of students per year, the work load is also increased. After 1996, the Board is handling all the academic matters related with framing of syllabus for all the classes, including SSLC and HSSLC.

Friday, 30 March 2012

The Binary Numbering System

Computers use this numbering system for doing its computations. As explained above, it has its own advantages. The computer follows three steps to complete and arithmetic operation:

  •   It converts the numeric data input to its corresponding binary equivalent.

  •   Performs the desired arithmetic operation in binary.

  • Converts the result back to its corresponding decimal equivalent and outputs the result.

When compared with decimal numbering system, the binary numbering system different in the number of digits used for a numeric value representation. The decimal system uses then digits, namely 0 to 9, whereas the binary system uses only tow digits, 0 and 1. Table below gives the decimal digits and is equivalent binary.
Decimal Number
Binary Equivalent
Decimal Number
Binary Equivalent
Table 1.1: Binary equivalent of decimal numbers
In table 1.1, we have seen the binary equivalent of decimal numbers. Now the question that arises is how to convert a decimal number into its binary equivalent and vice versa? To make it more general, how to convert a number in a particular base to its equivalent in another base? There are conversion techniques available to accomplish this task.  They are explain in conversion Techniques
When dealing with binary numbers, two more terms need to be understood. These are MSB (Most Significant Bit) and LSB (Least Significant Bit). These two bits play a very important role in many other aspects of computing, such as address calculation and bus optimization. So how do we define MSB and LSB? MSB can be defined as the digit that occurs at the left most position in a binary number. Similarly, LSB can be defined as the digit that occurs at the rightmost position in a binary number. The figure below shows the MSB and LSB in a binary number
MSB                                                                                                                                                                                       LSB

The Number System

The computer that we know of is digital device, which means that digital signals are used for the functioning of the computer. One property of digital signals is that it has discrete level of voltages. This Property of digital signals proves to be very useful to represent data in the computer. Why is it so? The answer to this question lies to the fact that there are many electrical and electronic devices which can be in any one of their two possible sates. For example, a simple switch can be either ON or OFF, a bulb or a Ligth Emitting Diode can be glowing or not glowing et. Therefore, representation of data becomes necessary to understand how the computer represents data. As we will see shortly, the com0uter use two values to represent data. These two values are called bits, switch stand for Binary Digits. They take the values 0 and 1. John von Neumann suggested this convention. Since there are only two values with which data can be represented in computer, at the lowest level, two discrete voltage values are used to represent the bits. Thus, digital signals, with their property mentioned above, proved to be ideal for computer systems.
Nearly all of our arithmetic operations are carried out with decimal numbers. The computer on the other hand does not use this numbering system. As mentioned earlier, the computer does its computational jobs with binary numbers, which is based on the number 2, for a number of reasons. The most important of them are the facts that operations with binary numbers are more precise and also the operations are faster because of the fact that for certain binary operations, there is hardware circuitry available.
For common numbering systems are generally used. They are the decimal numbering system, binary system, octal numbering system and finally, the hexadecimal numbering system. Decimal numbering system use base 10 (thus the prefix deci). Binary number system use base 2, octal numbering system use base 8 and hexadecimal numbering system use base 16. Thus, they have the prefix bi, octal and hexa respectively. We said that the numbering system use a base value. What do we understand by a base value? We can say that the base of a number refers to how many digits are required to represent a numerical value in that numbering refers to how many digits are required to represent a numerical value in that numb erring system. Thus, decimal been base 10, system requires two digits, 0 and 1, to represent any numerical value. The following sections will describe three common numbering systems.

Saturday, 3 March 2012

Shifting cultivations

  1. Shifting cultivations is still practiced in North Eastern Hill Region. In this system, crops are generally grown on a piece of land by the cultivators (jhumias) only once. After crop harvest, the cultivators (Jhumias) move to a new land, thus left the land fallow for 10 to 15 years.
  2. But today of rapid increasing in human population along with decrease in land. Cultivators (Jhumias) should reduce the shifting cycle leading to destruction of:
Ø  Forest wealth
Ø  Loss of soil cover
Ø  Siltation of reservoirs/ rivers resulting floods in the plains.
Thus this system of cultivation is now considered to be unscientific.
  1. Shifting cultivation not only losses the fallow land but also have many unfavourable circumstance disadvantages which effect the human kind:
Ø  Environmental Effect
Ø  Deforestation
Ø  Soil Erosion
Ø  Loss of Biodiversity
Ø  Pollution of coastal waters
  1. The problem generated from Jhum Cultivation are:
Ø  Climate
Ø  Slash and Burn
Ø  Harm to Indigenous Plants
Ø  Loss of habitat for Animals
So, we need to protect and conserve the natural forest and wild life.
  1. Shifting Cultivation are seen as tradition- bound by peasant and small farmers, trapped by ignorance and unable to manage their resources properly.
Ø  The current practice of shifting cultivation in Eastern and Northeastern region of India is an extravagant wasteful of several plot lands and unscientific form of land use.
Ø  Its evil effect are devastating, destructive and far-reaching in degrading (humiliating) the environment and ecology of the regions.
  1. The earlier 10 to 15 yrs cycle of shifting cultivation on a particular land has reduced to 2 to 3 yrs now. This has resulted in
Ø  Large Scale Deforestation
Ø  Soil and Nutrient Loss
Ø  Invasion by weeds and other Species
The indigenous biodiversity has been affected to a large extent.
  1. The Tripura Forest Minister Jitendra chowdhury has expressed deep concern over degradation of forest land due to Jhum Cultivation.
  2. In 1990, studies by the World Bank and the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation blamed Shifting cultivation for the forest loss due to Shifting Cultivation.
  3. Many NGO’s against for the country’s devastating fires, to those reckless Shifting cultivators of large-scale plantation.
Ø  About 45% of tropical agriculture area in the world is under shifting cultivation.
Ø  One third (1/3) of agriculture in South East Asia constitutes in Shifting Cultivation.
Ø  60% of Africa’s food is also produced through Shifting Cultivation.
Ø  The actual area affected by Shifting Cultivation was highest in Manipur at 77.4%
Ø  Arunachal 12.4%
Ø  Assam rank Fifth (5th) with 74.1%
It was not only economically unviable in present world but also a major threat to the biodiversity and contributor to Shifting Cultivation which lead to deforestation.
Therefore we should put an end to shifting cultivation for a better environment.
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From success to failure is one step

1.       From success to failure is one step; from failure to success is a long road.
2.       Years may wrinkle the skin, but to give up interest wrinkles the soul.
3.       A wise man turns chance into good fortune.
4.       Goals that are not written down are just wishes.
5.       Very little is needed to make a happy life; it is all within yourself, in your way of thinking.
6.       Success is getting what you want. Happiness wants what you get.
7.       A smile is a curved line that sets things straight.
8.       Keep your feet on the ground, but let your heart soar as high as it will.
9.       No legacy is as rich as honesty.
10.   A drop of ink may make a million think.
11.   If you can imagine it, you can achieve it. If you can dream it, you can become it.
12.   Live out of your imagination, not your history.
13.   A broken bone can heal, but the wound a word opens can fester forever.
14.   Worry achieves nothing and wastes valuable time.
15.   You can’t cross the sea merely by standing and staring at the water.
16.   Joy provides assurance, envy brings loneliness.
17.   Leave no stone unturned.
18.   Success feeds on itself and creates more success.
19.   You never really lose until you stop trying.
20.   Difficulties come not to obstruct, but to instruct.
21.   Life has no rehearsals, only performances.
22.   Memory is the diary that we all carry about with us.
23.   It’s nice to be important, but it’s more important to be nice.
24.   He who is not everyday conquering some fear has not learned the secret of life.
25.   The person that loses his conscience has nothing left worth keeping.
26.   Experience is simply the name we give to our mistakes.
27.   Time is at once the most valuable and the most perishable of all our possessions.
28.   Practice is the best of all instructors.
29.   The best and the most beautiful things in the world cannot be seen or touched but are felt in the heart.
30.   Life is a succession of moments. To live each one is to succeed.
31.   It is impossible for a man to learn what he thinks he already knows.
32.   Those who bring sunshine into the lives of others cannot keep it from themselves.
33.   Life is not so short but that there is always time enough for courtesy.
34.   A good example is the best sermon.
35.   To exist is to change, to change is to mature, to mature is to go on creating oneself endlessly.
36.   A man’s dream is an index to his greatness.
37.   Life is not measured by the breaths we take but by the moments that take our breath away.
38.   Do not dwell in the past, do not dwell in the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment.
39.   The road to success is always under construction.
40.   Even if you’re on the right track, you’ll get run over if you just sit there.
41.   Accept challenges, so that you may feel the exhilaration of victory.
42.   Fine a way, not an excuse.
43.   The roughest road often leads to the top.
44.   We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, therefore, is not an act but a habit.
45.   You may be disappointed if you fail, but you are doomed if you don’t try.
46.   Act as if it were impossible to fail.
47.   Our greatest glory is not in ever falling but in rising every time we fall.
48.   Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.
49.   If you fear failure, you shall never succeed.
50.   No act of kindness is ever wasted.
51.   Stand up for what is right, even if you are standing alone.
52.   He who walks in another’s tracks leaves no footprints.
53.   Failure is not falling down but refusing to get up.
54.   As is our confidence, so is our capacity.
55.   Discipline is the bridge between goals and accomplishments.
56.   Real knowledge is to know the extent of one’s ignorance.
57.   Leadership is practiced not so much in words as in attitude and in actions.
58.   Things should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler.
59.   Our deeds determine us as much as we determine our deeds.
60.    Advice is seldom welcome; and those who want it the most always like it the least.
61.   A man full of courage is also full of faith.
62.   Change your mind to change your life.
63.   Time heals what reason cannot.
64.   The biggest lesson we have to give our children is truth.
65.   No man looks at the world with pristine eyes. He sees it edited by a definite set of customs and institutions and ways of thinking.
66.   Enthusiasm in our daily work lightens efforts and turns even labour into pleasant task
67.   If we did all the things we are capable of doing, we would literally astonish ourselves.
68.   You are more defined by what comes out of your mouth than by what goes in.
69.   Only the wise can dance the rhythm of life.
70.   Anger is a condition in which the tongue works faster that the mind.
71.   Determination is the wake-up call to the human will.
72.   A closed mouth gathers no feet.
73.   The fellow who never makes a mistake takes his orders from one who does.
74.   One kind word can warm three winter months.
75.   Speech is the mirror of the soul, as a man speaks so is he.
76.   It is only those who never do anything who never make mistakes.
77.   The wise person questions himself, the fool others.
78.   Many complain of their looks, but none of their brains.
79.   Silence is one of the most effective forms of communication.
80.   Happiness is not a state to arrive at but a manner of traveling.
81.   A clean desk is a sign of a cluttered desk drawer.
82.   A close mouth catches no flies.
83.   A silent mouth is melodious.
84.   A spoon does not know the taste of soup, nor a learned fool the taste of wisdom.
85.   A wise man makes his won decisions; an ignorant man follows the public opinion.
86.   Better to light a candle that to curse the darkness.
87.   Do not look where you fell, but where you lipped.
88.   Everyone loves justice in the affairs of another.
89.   You fear what you do not understand.
90.   He that can’t endure the bad will not live to see the good.
91.   He that lives on hope will die fasting.
92.   He that makes haste to be rich shall not be innocent.
93.   He that spares his rod hates his son.
94.   Losing an illusion makes you wiser than finding a truth.
95.   When you rule your mind, you rule your world.
96.   There are more possibilities in the universe than one can imagine.
97.   If God lived on earth, people would break his windows.
98.   If rich people could hire other people to die for them, the poor could make a wonderful living.
99.   Love your neighbor’s, but don’t pull down the fence.
100.                        Enthusiasm is contagious
101.                        A smile breeds a smile.
102.                        One generation plants the trees, another gets the shade.
103.                        In the book of life, the answers aren’t in the back.
104.                        One joy scatters a hundred griefs.
105.                        One should go invited to a friend in good fortune, and uninvited in misfortune.
106.                        You must look into the people as well as at them.
107.                        Great heroes are humble.
108.                        What the mind can conceive, it may achieve.
109.                        You are only as good as your word.
110.                        Concentrate on finding your goal, then concentrate on reading it.
111.                        Put silk on a goat, it’s still a goat.
112.                        Seek counsel of him who makes you weep and not of him who makes you laugh.
113.                        Take your thoughts to bed with you, for the morning is wiser than the evening.
114.                        The darkest hour is that before the dawn.
115.                        Reverse the word evil, and you have the word live.
116.                        Who knows most speaks least.
117.                        The price of greatness is responsibility.
118.                        Experience is a comb which nature gives to men when they are bald.
119.                        Give neither counsel nor salt till you are asked for it.
120.                        Think like a man of action, act like a man of thought.
121.                        Knowledge is power and enthusiasm pulls the switch.
122.                        Victory goes to the player who makes the next-to-last mistake.
123.                        There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as   though everything is a miracle.
124.                        The best way to predict the future is to create it.
125.                        The doors of wisdom are never shut.
126.                        The time is always right to do what is right.
127.                        To accomplish great things, we must not only dream, but act.
128.                        Patience is the companion of wisdom.
129.                        It’s not enough to know what’s right, unless you’re strong enough to do it.
130.                        As a person I cannot change the world, but I can change the world of one person.
131.                        The best way to make your dreams come true is to wake up.
132.                        The wise person has long ears and a short tongue.
133.                        TEAM- Together Everyone Achieves More.
134.                        You will never find time for anything. If you want time, you must make it.
135.                        A ship in harbor is safe, but that is not what ships are built for.
136.                        One thing you can’t recycle is wasted time.
137.                        Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself.
138.                        Who looks outside, dreams; who looks inside, awakes.
139.                        It’s not enough to learn the truth, unless you also learn to live it.
140.                         Patience, persistence and perspiration make an unbeatable combination for success.
141.                        Do as much as you can, as well as you can, for as long as you can.
142.                        To stay young requires unceasing cultivation of the ability to unlearn old falsehoods.
143.                        In a time of drastic change, it is the learners who inherit the future.
144.                        Teachers open the door. You enter yourself.
145.                        Dreams do not vanish, so long as people do not abandon them.
146.                        When our memories outweigh our dreams, we have grown old.
147.                        If you can dream it, you can make it so.
148.                        A goal is a dream with a deadline.
149.                        Education’s purpose is to replace an empty mind with an open one.
150.                        To be conscious that you are ignorant is a great step to knowledge.